The Impact of the Proposed Legal Aid Changes

Justice Secretary Ken Clarke has been laying out proposals for changes in legal aid that will limit the types of cases where legal aid is available, therefore savings significant costs. Currently over 2 billion a year is spent on legal aid in the UK, an amount that is more than ten times that of France. Areas where legal aid will no longer be available will include claims against hospitals, doctors and schools, immigration, benefit and employment disputes and family law cases. Also in the proposals is that fees for legal aid solicitors will be cut by 10%. It is being seen by supporters as removing legal aid where it is being wasted but keeping it where it is really seen as necessary, while critics say that it will mean the poorest members of society will in some cases be unable to get justice.

So, what will be the impact of these changes should they go ahead?

One area of law that has significantly increased over the last decade is no-win no-fee suits. Currently the costs, and therefore solicitors fees, are recovered from the losing side. This is something that will no longer be possible.

In most cases legal aid will no longer be available in cases against public institutions such as doctors, hospitals and schools. Cases that will be affected will include those seeking legal action after medical mistakes. With regard to schools it is likely to limit the number of accident claims and appeals against school entrance. Some would argue that not being able to take legal action for genuine accidents is a good thing while other say it means that institutions will no longer be held responsible for a lack of care.

Family Law is seen as an area that will be impacted most by these proposed changes. Half of the total money saved will happen in the area of family law alone. Legal aid will still be available in cases that involve domestic violence, forced marriage and child abduction, but in a relatively straight forward case it will not be the case.

In general it is expected that the number of so called minor legal disputes will be less commonplace. This is something supporters see as a major plus points, on top of the obvious fact that it will save public money. The changes may put to an end (to an extent anyway) the increasing culture of looking for blame to profit from unfortunate situations, such as minor accidents. Some see certain cases as people taking advantage of legal aid where they would not pursue the case if they had to pay for it themselves, even if they could afford to. This will therefore reduce unnecessary legal action.

There are, of course, potential problems. Some are worried that the less well off will suffer unfairly, that there will be situations where people will not get justice where someone better off, and able to afford legal advice themselves, will be able to carry a case forward. It could also lead to irresponsibility with businesses, organisations and individuals held less responsible for their actions.

Andrew Marshall (c)

Looking Beyond India For Successful Legal Process Outsourcing

The most popular Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO) destinations include China, Israel, Philippines, Sri Lanka and, of course, India. For a decade, India has reigned as the world’s premier outsourcing destination because of its favorable time zone, the better quality of experts from the country, foreign educated professionals, language and the similarity to English common law systems. Despite India’s supreme reign, LPO is moving beyond India’s borders into new countries and with new strategies.

Redefining LPO

As the LPO industry matures and expands, corporate legal departments and law firms alike are becoming more open-minded about the types of legal processes to outsource and where their LPO providers are located. The trend today is to think about outsourcing in its broadest terms as “to outsource any legal work — including from one law firm to another law firm — in any geographical location, for example from the UK to Kenya, India to Uganda and so on.”

Rethinking LPO

This new mindset is leading to a surge in new destinations and operating models for LPO work. Examples of new LPO locations include the UK, Chile, Ghana, Jamaica, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, the Philippines, and Vietnam. These regions share several important attributes: they offer a rich pool of multi-skilled talent with a high work ethic. They also have cost advantages, sound IT and telecom infrastructure, good connectivity, ease of travel, government support, business-friendly policies and cultural compatibility.

Relocating Legal Process Outsourcing

The concept of “near-shoring” is also gaining global acceptance. The term describes any outsourcing location “near” its primary market (for instance, Eastern European countries to Western European Countries), or as services delivered from an adjacent or nearby country. The near-shore outsourcing model offers a number of benefits equal to the offshore outsourcing approach. The primary benefits include:

*Proximity and Time Zone
*Cultural Affinity and Ease of Doing Business
*Cost Savings

Although near-shore rates can be higher, near-shore engagements offer greater efficiency gains that working in close proximity and in the same time zones can bring. Therefore, near-shoring can be more efficient in achieving higher percentages of work performed at a lower cost location than offshore. Thinking past simple labor arbitrage, companies that engage in long-term engagements, measured by strategic service level agreements, can better leverage the advantages of the near-shore model.

The near-shoring trend illustrates the value of LPO beyond simple cost-savings. With the huge global potential that near-shoring presents, LPO will be more widely adopted as a flexible, effective strategy for delivering legal services to a global business community.

Check more info about : Legal Outsourcing Conference and Legal outsourcing

The Immigration Asylum & Nationality Act 2006 – Summary Of Changes

The Immigration Asylum & Nationality Act 2006 is the fifth major piece of legislation in the field of asylum and immigration since 1993.

Commencement

The Immigration Asylum & Nationality Act 2006 received Royal Assent on the 30th March 2006 and by virtue of a second commencement order, the main provisions took effect on 31 August 2006 by virtue of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006 (Commencement No.2) Order 2006.

Appeals

The first sections of the Act are concerned with appeals and impose new restrictions on the right to appeal against Home Office asylum or immigration decisions. The most significant is section 4 which limits the right of appeal against refusal of entry clearance to cases in which the application for entry clearance was made either for the purpose of entering as a dependant or a visitor – in both cases limited by reference to regulations made by the Home Secretary. Significantly, there will no longer be a right of appeal against refusal of entry clearance as a student.

Section 1 inserts a new section 83A into the Immigration, Nationality and Asylum Act 2002 to introduce a new right of appeal for people who are no longer recognised as refugees but who are permitted to stay in the UK on some other basis. Section 2 amends section 82(2)(g) of the 2002 Act to provide a right of appeal against a decision to remove under section 10(1)(b) of the 1999 Act. This will give the person a separate right of appeal at each of the two decision stages; the first at the revocation stage and the second at the stage the decision to remove is taken. Section 3 amends section 84 of the 2002 Act. It provides that an appeal under the new section 83A may only be brought on the ground that removal would breach the United Kingdom’s obligations under the Refugee Convention. Section 4 substitutes one provision for Sections 88A, 90 and 91 of the 2002 Act which limits all appeals against refusal of entry clearance to limited grounds (human rights and race discrimination), with the exception of those listed in the categories. By section 6 a person may not appeal against refusal of leave to enter the United Kingdom unless: (1) on his arrival in the United Kingdom he had entry clearance and (2) the purpose of entry specified in the entry clearance is the same as that specified in his application for leave to enter. Section 89 of the 2002 Act restricts rights of appeal against refusal of permission to enter at the port of both visitors and students who do not hold an entry clearance. This restriction limits the grounds of appeal to human rights and race discrimination. If the appeal is exercised in the UK it is restricted to asylum. A right of appeal remains in all cases on both human rights and race discrimination grounds.

Section 7 provides powers to hear only human rights aspects of national security appeal cases in country with the national security aspects of the case.

Employment

Section 15 imposes civil (and not criminal) penalties in the form of fines on employers of persons over the age of 16 subject to immigration control in defined circumstances. A person is subject to immigration control if he requires leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom under the provisions of the Immigration Act 1971. The defined circumstances are that:

Patent Translation Services

The current economy model rewards individuals who are inventive. When a new creation has been invented, it is paramount to get it registered with the national patent office. Once the registration is completed, the registrant will have a patent granting him exclusive rights over the invention. A patent is important because it gives the patent owner a 20 years period of monopoly in the market place.

Application under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
The PCT is an international agreement between 117 countries to provide an easier patent filling application process. However, inventors should be aware that the PCT system does not provide you with an international patent. By using the PCT, the inventor can file a single patent application with one patent office (e.g. UK patent office) so that he/she can seek for simultaneous protection for his/her invention in the other 116 countries. The application has to be one of the ten publication languages, and that includes Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian or Spanish.

It is common practice to hire patent translation services from a professional company to translate your patent application into English. This is because English is still the most frequently used language in business and science. Do go for a reputable translation company because the quality of the work will have a huge impact on your PCT application. One should note that patent translation will not have a very natural writing style because patent translation needs to be written in a legal style that contains specific information. Furthermore, patent description tends to be very technical. Therefore, a professional translation service will ensure that you have a watertight description of your invention.

Patent Translation for Filing Is Different From Patent Translation for Information
Patent translation services can vary according to the needs of the client. Sometimes the patent translation is only needed for understanding certain patent information, for use of litigation, or investigation of a prior art. In that case, the patent translation will be a more literal translation and the main aim is to get the key information across. This type of patent translation is also very suitable for internal circulation and much cheaper compared to full patent translation for filling.

On the other hand, patent translation for filing will be carried out by specialist native translators. The translated patent will also be proofread by another expert translator. These translators have working knowledge of intellection property regulations to ensure that the translation is also legally sound. Before filing to the patent office, the translated patent application will be checked by a local patent lawyer to ensure the format of application is correct. With all these safeguard processes in place; one should expect the price to be more expensive compared to patent translation just for information.

Client Confidentiality
An unpatented invention is of no value. Hence, inventors are very reluctant to disclose their invention to a third party. An information leak from the translation company is the last thing any inventor wants to see. So, do make sure that the professional translation company you hire has a good reputation and also a robust confidentiality policy. Always ask the translation company to explain to you on what precautions will be taken to protect the translation work and the original information. This will help to prevent any unnecessary complication in the future.

Guatemala and Enforcement of Foreign Judgements

Executive Summary What we are going to discuss here is whether or not a creditor can come to Guatemala with a judgment from a foreign (Non Guatemala) court and enforce it or make it collectible in Guatemala. We will look at the complications involved and the chances of success which are miniscule at best. I would like to point out that this is a topic not covered by our competition. There are collection law firms that discuss international judgement collection but they are trying to sell their services. In spite of this I have never seen one collection law firm getting enthusiastic about collecting foreign judgements. It is best done through a treaty which Guatemala does not have with any country. We will discuss the matter in depth below.
What is a Judgement A judgement is a decision from a court based on a trial or it could be based on a summary judgment where there was not trial held because the odds of success for the defendant were so small the court just goes ahead and railroads him. Sometimes this happens because the defendant can not afford a legal defense. This is prevalent in the USA. In this discourse we are addressing judgments for money damages. A judgement can have other aspects to it like an eviction proceeding ordering one to leave a house. It does not matter if it is a local court or a national court for this discourse. This is because Guatemala has no treaties for enforcement of foreign judgments but more on this later. The court would need to be contained in a country that Guatemala has diplomatic relations with. Guatemala also insists that the country of the judgement allows Guatemala judgements to be enforced in that country.
What is Not a Judgement A tax lien is not a judgment. Tax liens can come from local or national governments. There is normally no trial preceding a tax lien. There was no judge, no jury, no due process, no right to defend yourself, no attorney present for the defendant, no right to examine your accuser, no chance of jury nullification, etc. This is a government administrative procedure that is not enforceable offshore in other countries. A tax lien would need to be reduced to a judgement by filing a lawsuit in a court of appropriate jurisdiction in the home country. It would be like any other lawsuit. The defendant would have the right to present a defense and have a jury trail. Such a judgement would also then be dischargeable in an ordinary bankruptcy case. Tax liens are practically never converted into a judgement for these reasons and of course the expense involved, time delay to go to trail and so forth.
Guatemala Has No Treaty for the Enforcement of Foreign Judgements It is good that Guatemala has no such treaty. If a treaty like this was present the process of collecting a foreign judgment would be simplified. The judgment itself would be sufficient evidence to proceed with collection. With Guatemala, foreign judgements are anything but a cost effective easy thing to collect on.
Guatemala Corporations and Foreign Judgements Before we get into the ins and outs of the nightmares associated with collecting foreign judgments in Guatemala lets look at the initial problem a judgment creditor would face. We always have our clients use corporations for asset protection. This applies to banking, real estate, cars etc. We prefer to start with fresh corporations formed in the jurisdiction as long as they are anonymous bearer share corporations. Guatemala has very anonymous bearer share corporations. The names of the owners of the corporation do not appear in any public registry, database and the government does not know who owns the corporation. In places like the USA where the legal system has run amuck you will hear a lot of talk concerning piercing the corporate veil. This piercing the corporate veil tactic is nasty and effective in the USA. Try it in Guatemala and you will fail and have one angry judge to deal with who will be less than appreciative of your attempts to import sleazy legal tactics from the USA into his or her courtroom. The corporate veil is not going to be pierced for foreign cvil judgement collection matters. So how does the creditor attack real estate or a bank account owned by a corporation in Guatemala? He doesn’t! You are the owner of the corporation but he does not know that and cannot prove that. Ownership of Guatemala corporations is not in any public registry or database. Going to court and saying well the judgment debtor wired funds from his home country bank account to a bank account owned by this corporation, is not going to prove a single thing in Guatemala regarding corporate ownership. The judgment debtor may have invested in this corporation, he may have bought real estate from this corporation or bought a boat, a plane a car, etc. It does not prove any ownership. The judgement creditor is not going to be able to get into any Guatemala banking records using a foreign judgment as grounds. Guatemala has serious bank secrecy. You must understand that in Guatemala a corporation is a free standing judicial person (artificial person) that has its own assets and liabilities. Your liabilities are not the liabilities of the corporation. This means personal debts do not transfer over to a corporation.
Fraudulent Conveyance The catchall used to attack offshore bank accounts is fraudulent conveyance. A fraudulent conveyance references activity where funds or assets were removed from a jurisdiction to prevent a creditor from recovering the debt. The term can also apply to transferring title of real estate or a car to another to keep it from being attached by a creditor. Panama allows a creditor to pursue a fraudulent conveyance action based on a foreign judgment and this even applies to their foundations. As a comparison Guatemala is not a fraudulent conveyance friendly jurisdiction. Such cases are seldom ever heard of in Guatemala because the chances of success are extremely slight. The plaintiff would need to show that the transfer was specifically designed or intended to remove the assets from the reach of the creditor. If the defendant could show this was not the case then there is no fraudulent conveyance. The money could have been moved to say a Guatemala corporation to pay for services, goods, make an investment, buy a residence, invest in real estate, buy a boat, and so forth. Please bear in mind that in Guatemala the creditor is in the dark. He cannot just subpoena bank records like in other countries. He has no idea who owns the corporation. There are a lot of just about insurmountable obstacles in the path the creditor has to follow. This is why we do not really see these cases in Guatemala.
Foreign Judgement Enforcement Complications in Guatemala There are a lot of conditions that need to be met to enforce a judgment in Guatemala from another country.
Default judgments are not enforceable in Guatemala. The defendant must have been served personally. This means a live process server gave them the legal papers. If the service was by mail, by courier, by publication it invalidates the entire lawsuit and judgement as far as Guatemala is concerned. Dropping the papers on the doorstep or taping them to the door is not going to work. This right off the top eliminates a large amount of judgements.
The judgment must be final in that there is no more room for appeals. This is usually going to mean a few months in most cases.
The court that issued the judgment has to have had proper jurisdiction over the matter. Frivolous cases filed in foreign jurisdictions with incorrect venue or authority are not going to be enforceable. The debtor can always argue that the jurisdiction or authority the court asserted is incorrect. This can then make it a triable issue of fact in the Guatemala courts. The defendant would try to get the plaintiff to retry the entire case in Guatemala if he could not find another way to dispose of the matter. To do this means two sets of lawyers for the plaintiff, one in Guatemala and one from the foreign country. Think big money. Remember that Guatemala has no treaties for the enforcement of foreign judgments. This opens up the playing field to counter attack the plaintiff attempting to collect the judgement. When there is a treaty the judgment itself stands as admissible evidence and the grounds for objecting are most limited.
There is no enforcement if no such claim would be possible under Guatemala law. Guatemala will refuse to enforce the foreign money judgment if the claim on which the foreign judgment is based could not have been brought in Guatemala. The foreign case has to be consistent with Guatemala law. Guatemala law is not as crazy as USA, UK law. If you were sued for sending out faxes that were unsolicited, this judgment would be void in Guatemala since they have no such law in Guatemala. Many USA lawsuits are for civil violations that are absent from Guatemala law and thus not enforceable in Guatemala. This means the foreign attorney will have to retain foreign counsel to review the case and see it is consistent with Guatemala law. Can be expensive. He may have to have the entire matter translated into Spanish by a certified translator at a cost of $10 to $15 a page. Some cases are hundreds of pages. Then the Guatemala lawyer has to read the case which means billable hours. He will ask questions to the foreign attorney so now we get into double billable hours. In any event to enter the judgment into the Guatemala court system in an effort to collect there would need to be a translation of the judgment into Spanish. Then when the debtor started making objections the entire case file would most likely need to be translated into Spanish.
If the judgment was for contempt of court it makes the judgment not valid in Guatemala. This sort of judgment would not be collectible in Guatemala.
The judgment has to not be for default. In other words if you failed to respond to a foreign court action and were in domicile in Guatemala and they got a summary judgment that would not be a valid judgment.
More Foreign Judgment Collection Obstacles in Guatemala The creditor wishing to collect on a foreign judgment in Guatemala is basically on a financial mission, to collect funds. His path is like walking through a minefield. He can hit a number of unexpected or hidden tactics presented by the debtor that will make a financial recovery very unlikely.
First, we have to look at the appeals process open to the defendant. These are the things a creditor will be advised to consider before proceeding with an expensive and time consuming foreign judgment matter in Guatemala. Please bear in mind the defendant (debtor) can appeal any negative decision from a lower court two ways. The defendant can appeal to the Supreme Court claiming the law was not followed correctly applying any of the above noted objections, or all of them. He can also claim procedures were not followed correctly. He can claim the case is not consistent with Guatemala law. He can attack the way he was served. There are many things he can do. He can even file a counter claim against the creditor. The other appeals option is to appeal to the special Constitutional Courts Guatemala has to just decide constitutional issues. How hard would it be to argue that the defendant had some constitutional rights violated in the process somewhere.
If all that fails after years of waiting for the process to work its way through the courts, then there is the bankruptcy option. Guatemala has a complex bankruptcy court system that could be utilized for shelter from creditors. Using these appellate processes is going to run up the bill for the plaintiff substantially. Without the appeals system, the time required for cases can run up to the 3-5 year mark easily. Then add in appeals. and the bankruptcy for even more years. The plaintiff could conceivably go broke or die of old age before the appeals process runs out. They might recover nothing especially if a bankruptcy is used. The plaintiff might never prevail. The expenses involved could be more than the amount of the judgment. By the time all the appeals are used, the time limit for the judgment may have expired (7-10 years usually) and then the case could be dismissed because the judgment is not longer valid, thus not enforceable. And on and on it goes. Such collection efforts are indeed rarely ever seen in Guatemala.
Summary If you have read this you are looking for a secure offshore asset protection jurisdiction and structure. We have several excellent options. Please bear in mind the perfect jurisdiction and structure does not exist. There is always going to be a give and take scenario. We have managed to isolate a few excellent options but there is no perfect solution that meets the needs of everyone. We do try though!

Personal Injury Claim Solicitors

Serious personal injury and illness can be devastating and have a life changing impact for the people directly involved. However, with personal injury claims solicitors you get a legal representation for a claim due to injuries caused by negligence or wrongdoing of another person, company, government agency or other entity. Compensation won through them is an invaluable lifeline for the victims who may have lost their ability to earn due to the injury. Medical costs and other financial losses can be covered through such compensation.

Personal Injury Claims cover:

Road accidents
Accidents in public places
Accidents at work
Product liability claims
Motorcycle accidents
Accidents in public transport vehicles

Any monetary losses incurred by a victim due to the accident are compiled in a document called Schedule of Loss. Some of the things that can be included in a Schedule of Loss include:

Loss of Earnings: If the victim has been absent from work due to the accident and is forced to take a leave without pay, then he or she can file for loss of earnings claim. This claim is usually calculated as per the average earnings information on last 13 salary slips, prior to the accident. If the victim s self employed, the calculation is based on last three years’ profits and loss accounts.
Care and Assistance: If the accident causes severe physical disabilities and the victim is forced to hire help for household work such as cleaning, preparing meals, personal care, then he/she may claim for care and assistance. This is claimed at hourly rate and is payable to the domestic helpers.
Treatment Bills: The personal injury solicitors usually arrange for basic physiotherapy, osteopathic or chiropractic treatment, for their clients. The costs of such treatments can be recovered from the other party once the claim is successful. In case the claim is not successful, insurance covers the cost.
Travel Costs: The cost of travel for visits to hospitals and courts is also included in the Schedule of Loss.

Stratford Personal Injury Direct lawyers help victims of personal injury in UK to claim 100% compensation in different cases. Whether a back injury, whiplash injury or any other medical problem, if this is a consequence of an accident caused by another person/organization’s error, our team will help you to claim for your losses.

We work on a No Win No Fee Basis and employ the best legal means to assist you in winning your claims.

Probate Properties

The Great Probate R.I.P-Off

I have commented before on Ambulance Chasing, where as you would generally expect greedy Solicitor/Lawyers are at the head of the queue, but it would seem along with the banks that they will stoop to the lowest of the low when it comes to grieving families and Probate.

Chasing after responsible parties of injured people, in the all too familiar world of American-Style personal injury work is one thing, especially as the injured party is fully aware of what they are trying to achieve.BUT and this is a BIG BUT When you are the appointed executor of an estate or a beneficiary who is just about coping with the grief of losing a loved one, it is an unconscionable act to prey on this vulnerability like some legal parishioners in the UK specializing in the probate process seem to do these days.

As I am always being asked about how to approach probate properties and the clear sensitivity that exists with this kind of Property investment, it seems to make sense to clear up a couple of items that I know will be on someones mind if it is not on yours.

Firstly WE as the Investor , are there for one purpose and one purpose ONLY and that is to act as a problem solver to the estate, NOT to join the queue of vultures that seem to appear, whenever someone passes away.

Generally in every process there will be a legal appointment for the Probating of the estate and although as the investor we generally do not want to deal with the appointed solicitor per se, it is important you know their role in the process.

Secondly, because we are there to help resolve a huge financial burden for the estate, we are generally seen by the estate as a real benefit, especially if it means a speedier resolution to a process that the legal and financial world are happy to drag out, because as with most things and never MORE so heretime equals BIG MONEY!

Again this is another reason why we can achieve hugely rewarding results, when this problem solving approach is undertaken properly and sensitively.

Law in UK, its evolution and study.

A combination of rules and regulations that creates an ambience of safety security, justice and equality in a civilized world is called a Law. Law brings about a transformation in the society and a change in people.

The process of teaching and training young learning minds the basics and intricacies of law and order and enabling them to practice it is called Legal Education. To learn Law and legal systems, people apply for admission to law colleges and law universities, study in-depth about the subject and then practice in real life.

These days many students go to study Law in UK. There are many Law colleges in UK which provide studies in UK and International Law. The reason why many prefer to study Law in UK is because of their similarity with Indian Law. This way one who studies law from a good Law College in UK can understand Indian Law also very well. Law Universities in U.K teach prospective lawyers the basics of law at the undergraduate level. After they graduate from the college, they are made to achieve distinction in a bar exam. Once that is done, they are given a certificate and then become eligible for practice.

There is an examination called the Common Professional examination that students must pass with good marks in order to set the ball rolling to practice Law in UK. Law practice tests are a good source to hone your skills before appearing in the exam. Like mentioned earlier, they can finish the process of learning law in the undergraduate level itself. It also possible to study Legal Education by earning a diploma in a Law college in the UK or a Law University in the UK. After the degree is earned, vocational courses is completed by students to finally finish their process.

“Education of Lawyers” is the top most body and the governing council for legal education in the U.S. “Juris Doctor” or “Doctor of jurisprudence” is the official law enabling practice degree that is given by law colleges and law universities to students. After this, he has to do a variety of law practice tests to attend a bar exam and pass in it effectively. After a prospective lawyer passes the bar exam, he is given an official license and officially becomes an Attorney of Law. Now he has the option to practice independently or join a law firm.

Questions To Ask Top Uk Immigration Lawyers

Before you move to another country, you may want to take the time to talk to lawyers to find out what is required of you during this move. There are things that you will need to do differently in every country. Moving to the UK is not the same as moving to Brazil or Canada. You should ask the top UK immigration lawyers a few different things to make sure that you do not make a mistake that could make it impossible for you to move to the country. If you work things out with them beforehand, you can save yourself a lot of time and trouble. Below are a few things that should be addressed.

First of all, you need to ask about the paperwork. Becoming a citizen of another country is not easy. There will be many forms that you have to fill out. You will need to provide proof that you really are who you claim to be. If you have a family, you will also need to provide these things for each member. The sooner you can get this process started, the better. Ask the lawyer what paperwork you will need and where you can get it. You can then start to get things in order long before you want to move.

Next, you may want to ask about your children. If they are born in the UK, are they automatically citizens even though you are from somewhere else? Do they have a choice between the two countries? Is it possible for them to get dual citizenship so that they can live wherever they would like? It is good to ask about these things even if you do not plan to have any children at this time. You still should know what the ramifications of the move will be for anyone in your family. You need to find out what will be required later if you do end up having children. It is possible to come back to the lawyers and ask these questions later, but it is often best to do this before you move just in case it will impact your decision.

Finally, you should ask about the cost. What types of fees are there? Are there any expenses that you may not have considered? You will already have some idea about the cost of the move as far as travel and transportation are concerned. You need to know about any other fees so that you can make sure that you have enough money. You do not want to be surprised by a bill that you did not expect. If you are, it could make it financially impossible for you to carry your plans.

Personal Injury Claims – How Much Is My Injury Compensation Claim Worth

Valuing personal injury claims depends on the accident victims individual circumstances. An injury compensation claim comprises:-

(1)GENERAL DAMAGES for the pain and suffering caused by the injury and any treatment

(2)SPECIAL DAMAGES to reimburse financial losses incurred or expenses paid

Claims solicitors aim to recover full compensation for their clients and can normally offer a free service.

It is important to remember that to receive personal injury compensation the accident victims opponent must be found to be either partly or fully responsible for the accident and injury. There will always be situations where no-one is at fault, when no compensation will be awarded.

GENERAL DAMAGES

This depends on the type of injury suffered, how long it will take to recover and whether there will be any lasting effects.

An injury compensation claim can also include damages for any loss of amenity, ie the extent to which life has been affected by the accident. For example, when a keen golfer suffers an accident and cannot play because of their injury, even if only for a short time.

Typical awards made in personal injury claims:-

Broken arm/leg – 4,000 to 11,000
Broken ribs – 1,750 to 2,750
Broken finger/toe – 1,600 to 3,000
Broken nose – 1,400 to 2,250
Whiplash – 1,250 to 8,500

Claims solicitors will arrange for the injured person to be examined by a medical consultant, who prepares a report detailing the injuries. This enables the true value of the injury compensation claim to be assessed.

SPECIAL DAMAGES

Examples of items that can be claimed include:-

a)Lost earnings – including wages already lost and, if appropriate, anticipated future lost wages. Future losses take into account pay increases, promotion prospects and other benefits (eg pension) that would have been enjoyed if the accident had not happened.

b)Travelling expenses – including visits to GP, hospital or other practitioner providing treatment.

c)Medical and care expenses – including prescription charges, non-prescription items (eg pain killers, creams, bandages, etc), privately paid physiotherapy or other treatment, the care and assistance provided by a private agency or by family and friends (eg helping with personal hygiene, cooking, cleaning, shopping, gardening, etc).

There are many items of loss or expenditure that can be included in an injury compensation claim, but they must be as a direct result of the accident and ideally evidenced by invoices or receipts.

Payment of Compensation

For personal injury claims where liability for the accident is admitted and all elements of the compensation are agreed with the opponents insurers, payment is usually made within 14 days of agreement being reached.

If the injury is severe and the long term prognosis is unclear, claims solicitors should be able to negotiate an upfront payment for part of the full value of the injury compensation claim, to help the injured person meet their financial obligations while recovering.

More Details about Personal Injury Claims go to www.hinchliffes.co.uk